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Control Balance Theory  

Charles R. Tittle

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Control balance theory (CBT) was developed in the mid-1990s, primarily to illustrate a particular method for building integrated theory and to show how general theories are useful in ... More

Critical Criminology and the Critique of Domination, Inequality and Injustice  

David O. Friedrichs

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Critical criminology has achieved a substantial presence within the field of criminology over the past several decades. Critical criminology has produced a framework for the understanding ... More

Enemy Penology  

Susanne Krasmann

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
When Guenther Jakobs introduced the concept of “enemy criminal law” (Feindstrafrecht), or enemy penology, into the legal debate, this was due to a concern with the increasingly ... More

Gang Joining  

James A. Densley

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This article examines the who, what, where, when, why, and how of gang joining. The question of what youth join when they join gangs speaks to the contested nature of gang definitions and ... More

Gang Organization and Gang Types  

Christian L. Bolden

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Gang organization has been an aspect of research that is often explored and debated. The concept of organization is intertwined with questions of whether gangs have leaders, whether gangs ... More

General Strain Theory  

Timothy Brezina

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
General strain theory (GST) provides a unique explanation of crime and delinquency. In contrast to control and learning theories, GST focuses explicitly on negative treatment by others and ... More

Laws of Geography  

Michael Leitner, Philip Glasner, and Ourania Kounadi

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The most prominent law in geography is Tobler’s first law (TFL) of geography, which states that “everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant ... More

Network Perspectives on Crime  

Jason Gravel and George E. Tita

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Though often not mentioned by name, the importance of social networks in explaining criminal behavior, delinquency, and patterns has long been recognized in the study of crime. Theories ... More

Pathways to Crime  

Breanna Boppre, Emily J. Salisbury, and Jaclyn Parker

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Scholarship in criminology has focused on individuals’ pathways to crime—how life experiences, often beginning during childhood, lead to criminality in adolescence or adulthood. General ... More

Political Ideologies and Penality  

Zelia A. Gallo

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The literature on contemporary Western punishment presents us with a number of possible approaches to political ideologies and penality. The first approach requires us to ask what ... More

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